Bell's Inequalities: Foundations and Quantum Communication

Author(s): Č. Brukner, M. Zukowski

Journal: arXiv: quant-ph

Page(s): 0909.2611

Year: 2009

DOI Number: --

Link: Link to publication

Abstract:

Efforts to construct deeper, realistic, level of physical description, in which individual systems have, like in classical physics, preexisting properties revealed by measurements are known as hidden-variable programs. Demonstrations that a hidden-variable program necessarily requires outcomes of certain experiments to disagree with the predictions of quantum theory are called "no-go theorems". The Bell theorem excludes local hidden variable theories. The Kochen-Specker theorem excludes noncontextual hidden variable theories. In local hidden-variable theories faster-that-light-influences are forbidden, thus the results for a given measurement (actual, or just potentially possible) are independent of the settings of other measurement devices which are at space-like separation. In noncontextual hidden-variable theories the predetermined results of a (degenerate) observable are independent of any other observables that are measured jointly with it. It is a fundamental doctrine of quantum information science that quantum communication and quantum computation outperforms their classical counterparts. If this is to be true, some fundamental quantum characteristics must be behind better-than-classical performance of information processing tasks. This chapter aims at establishing connections between certain quantum information protocols and foundational issues in quantum theory. After a brief discusion of the most common misinterpretations of Bell's theorem and a discussion of what its real meaning is, it will be demonstrated how quantum contextuality and violations of local realism can be used as useful resources in quantum information applications.

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